[T01] A Constructivist Approach to Lived Experience: Humanizing Sex Workers by Understanding the Phenomenon of Prostitution
Lorena Jean D. Saludadez and Isabel Christianni N. Estillore, University of the Philippines
This study presents a general objective of understanding the phenomenon of prostitution within the context of the Philippines. Specifically, this study would like to examine two (2) key areas: (1) the negative notions surrounding prostitution, and (2) the “lived reality” of sex workers. By providing an understanding of the situation of women within prostitution, this research presents a framework that provides a root cause-perspective approach to solving prostitution. This way, individuals, governments, and institutions may have a better grasp on how to better address the problem through different policy initiatives. In the context of the Philippines, there is a predominant negative notion about women engaged in prostitution. In this research, these negative notions are examined through the actual experiences of women in sex work. Through the use of grounded analysis, this research uncovers the reasons women engage in prostitution, their perception of prostitution, and the risks and the benefits they experience as sex workers. This study shows that the phenomenon of prostitution with the emphasis on “lived reality.” By utilizing the actual narratives of sex workers in Cebu City as the basis of discussion, this study identifies five (5) major factors for the engagement of women in prostitution – (1) financial conditions, (2) convenience, (3) family, (4) peers, and (5) rebellion. Building up on these factors, this study identified four (4) determinants to an emergent non-interventionist perspective: (1) poverty, (2) lack of education, (3) lack of opportunities, and (4) inefficient government. In debunking the prevalent notions of prostitution by understanding the narratives of sex workers themselves, this research aims to bring prostitution in a different light. This research aims itself to allow the stories within prostitution to emerge; wherein, the research demonstrates that the decision to enter prostitution is driven by different systemic factors. Overall, through the phenomenon of prostitution, this study hopes to demonstrate knowledge and understanding as a requisite of genuine compassion.
[T02] A Vegan Vlogger's Voice
Jea Agnes T. Buera, University of the Philippines Los Baños
To this day, the community of YouTube creators, video bloggers or vloggers grows each day as more technology becomes available. This is why there is a shift of YouTube byline from "Your Digital Video Repository" to "Broadcast Yourself" that is paving way to a new generation of communicators. Through YouTube, vloggers are given a democratic space to present their arguments for or against a particular issue. Particularly, YouTube has fostered a community of advocates such as vegan creators who produce videos dedicated to veganism and animal rights. However, in the Philippines, some advocacies such as veganism have a limited place for discussion anywhere else except in social media platforms that are free and open for an advocacy. Thus, this study conducted a rhetorical analysis of a YouTube vlogger advocating veganism. In the selected YouTube vlog, three prevalent rhetorical acts emerged: 1) Misconception on eating animal products as personal choice, 2) Morality on eating animal products, and 3) Move towards veganism. Animal agriculture for consumption and other forms of animal abuse or cruelty are the social exigencies that persuaded the vlogger that these issues, as well as the dire consequences to our health, the animals, and the environment, are urgent to discuss through a YouTube vlog. To contribute in advancing a communicational view of an advocacy, this study explored the use of rhetorical strategies and engaged questions of meaning and value on exigencies which allow for the creation of discourse with a pragmatic intent of offering a solution to commit to veganism.
[T03] (Re)Learn Empathy Through Art in Social Media: A Phenomenological Study of Filipinos of All Ages Engaged in Social Media
Shari Eunice T. San Pablo, University of the Philippines Los Baños/ University of the Philippines Open University
Art can be used to express a variety of feelings such as happiness, rage, jealousy and even elicit different emotions from viewers. Art is also used to send messages across a wide range of audience. This study will unfold the experiences of Filipinos who are engaged in social media to help us understand how to [re]learn empathy through art. How do Filipinos react when they see Art meant to elicit empathy? Generally, I am aiming to surface the narratives of Filipinos regarding their engagement art that can be found on social media. Specifically, I sought to:
- Gauge the emotional intelligence of Filipinos who are engaged in social media
- Surface the experiences of the Filipinos that shaped them and/or their behavior online
A qualitative study was conducted involving semi-structured interviews of Filipinos of all ages who are engaged in social media. Purposive sampling procedure was used to select participants for the study. Online interviews and face-to-face interviews were conducted with all study participants. The recorded interviews were transcribed and qualitative content thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.
[T04] Theater as Play: Designing an Immersive Historical Fiction Play to Engage Learners in History
Ana Katrina P. de Jesus, University of the Philippines Los Baños
Although theatre as a learning medium has been the subject of many studies, there is scant literature on the creative process of designing a theater play aligned to specific learning objectives. This study utilized critical reflection to explore the processes of innovating a History lesson by turning it into an immersive theater. Immersive theater is a performance that makes audiences experience, instead of merely watch (Eckert, 2017). In this study, a lesson in Philippine History is directly experienced by the learners through a live role-playing game performed in the University of the Philippines Los Banos. The study draws upon the views and reflections of History professors, History students, and game designers to examine their learning experiences as they co-constructed the play. History was chosen as focus because a literature review revealed that compared to other subjects, history is perceived by students as more passive and boring, particularly if students cannot see historyâ€™s relevance in their lives. Because of its intent to generate theoretical explanation inductively through reflecting on practice (Morley, 2008), critical analysis was employed in this study. Data were collected in the forms of participant observation, interviewing, and reflective writing, and analyzed through categorizing and theming. Results suggest that the immersive play enhanced how History is taught by accommodating more affective factors in learning, activated by a multi-sensorial environment where learners experience History, rather than discuss about it. A theoretical explanation is offered through a model that reframes theatre as â€˜play,â€™ actors as facilitators of the learning interactions, and audiences as players. The audiences related stories that emerged from the story premise, which made them reflect on the meaning of heroism. It was also revealed that History professors seek innovative ways to make History relevant, and they find live role-playing games as a novel medium. The game designers found a way to integrate learning objectives in the play through a collaborative process. The study provides insights on innovating the way History is taught through such collaborative design that considers teachers, learners, and environment.
[T05] Mind Mapping Sustainable Development: The Case of Senior High School Students Before and After Community Engagement
Christian M. Lacza, De La Salle University
Tracing sustainability in development is usually a vague topic, especially among Filipino high school students who get limited exposure to such concept. With the implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum, the course Community Engagement, Solidarity, and Citizenship (CESC) has been included in the specialized subjects of the Humanities and Social Science (HUMSS) Stand of Senior High School. Such course envisions producing a breed of HUMSS students who are responsive to the needs of the community by training them in the process of community engagement. CESC is also the course where students are taught perspectives in community and resource mobilization for development. As such, it is important to determine the notions of development of the students taking the course as they would need it in the conduct of their community engagement initiatives. Using the principle of cognitive learning, this paper attempts to understand the understanding of the students of Sustainable Development in terms of the relationship of the terms and concepts they associate with it. The study has revealed that prior to taking CESC, most students understand Sustainable Development as the interrelation of social, economic, and political developments. Dominant responses are concerning the themes of People, and Prosperity. After taking CESC, responses highlighted Sustainable Development as a process and invention. They have identified necessary collaboration between local and global agents that would lead to progress without the expense of the environment. Students have provided more holistic responses as the themes of People, Planet, Prosperity, and Partnership are apparent in their answers. It was also noted that more complex mind maps were produced by the students after taking the course. This provides evidence of their improved understanding of Sustainable Development. The contribution of this paper is two-fold: first, it tries to determine how future community workers understand sustainable development; and, second, it provides a baseline understanding for CESC teachers about the possible adjustments in the preparation of content in order to help the students understand the concept better.
[T06] Kami ay Parang Isda (We Are Like Fish): Examining the Onto-politics of Design Thinking for Typhoon Haiyan Recovery
Pamela G. Cajilig, RMIT University
Humanist assumptions in political theory are anchored in the dualism between nature and culture, in which the stuff of the world merely awaits to be moulded into the desires of human beings. Studies of disaster recovery reflect this dualism: there is a tendency to construct those affected as either only socio-political beings or as apolitical inhabitants of the environment. Veering away from this dichotomy, this paper will explore how non-human agents can become a creative force in disaster recovery in that they 'force thought’, and thus facilitate new political orientations and new ways of becoming as well as underscore the significance of marginalised ontologies. As such, this paper will discuss the onto-politics that characterised particular projects in disaster recovery that hinged on ‘Design Thinking’ (as formulated by Tim Brown) as a concept-tool. In the spirit of reflexive practice, the author will analyse how the shifting multi-agent configurations that comprised professional engagements in design thinking for Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) recovery have provoked (and sometimes resolved) conflicting articulations of what it means to continue living after catastrophe. Specifically, this paper will examine Design Thinking as it applied to two different aspects of post-Haiyan recovery, with one case discussing the development of shelter initiatives in Eastern Visayas, and another case examining the dynamics of a livelihood rehabilitation workshop in Manila for political organisations comprised of fisher-folk affected by the typhoon. This paper therefore contributes to disaster studies -and by extension, to the understanding of sustainable communities- by suggesting that a more-than-human analysis of post-Typhoon Haiyan recovery fosters a more nuanced apprehension of how worlds are threatened by catastrophe.
[T07] Growing Old in the Philippines
Lody Padilla Espendio
This poster presents a situational analysis of senior citizens in the Philippines, including population demographics, poverty rates, living arrangements, contribution to the labor force, and health outcomes.
[T08] Yantok Chair Production Of The Yogads: An Analysis Toward Its Sustainability
Jandy S. Danzalan, Philippine Normal University North Luzon
The study documented the indigenous knowledge pertaining to yantok chair production practices. The participants were household heads, eldest members, manufacturers and weavers of Brgy. Annafunan Echague, Isabela, a Yogad Tribe community known for their yantok chair production, and were selected through convenient sampling technique. The study is a qualitative research employing descriptive and ethnographic research design using observation, interview and documentary as methods. In all, the historical aspects of Yogad community, collection of rattan, processing practices, tools used in weaving, weaving techniques, livelihood mainstay, problem and prospects, and gender analysis in rattan chair production are discussed. The crafts’ practices are deemed for preservation, conservation and promotion towards sustainability and livelihood security.
[T09] Social Media as Platforms for Disclosure among University Students Diagnosed with Clinical Depression
Ronalyn B. Briones, SOS Children's Villages Philippines
In this grounded study, I aimed to understand the role social media plays in the disclosures of university students diagnosed with clinical depression. Using triangulation mixed-method design in gathering, analyzing and interpreting data, I extracted the following: (1) the reasons why university students diagnosed with clinical depression disclose online, (2) the characteristics of social media that entice them to use it, and (3) how social media as a communication platform became a common ground for disclosures. The Uses and Gratifications Theory was used as a lens in understanding and explaining integrated findings from the gathered data. It was found that university students diagnosed with clinical depression use and disclose on social media because of the following motivations: (1) social interaction, (2) identity-seeking, (3) information-seeking and sharing, and (4) escapism. On the other hand, the characteristics and features of social media platforms that entice them to disclose on them are the following: (1) Social Media Strengthens Different Expressions of Oneself, (2) Social Media Supports Creation of a Safe Online Environment / Space, (3) Social Media Allows Compartmentalization of Personalities, (4) Social Media Bridges Distance and Promotes Building of Communities, (5) Social Media Helps Make Online Help/Support Available Instantly, Immediately, and 24/7, (6) Social Media Encourages Content Brevity, (7) Social Media Promotes Understanding of Others, (8) Social Media Allows Audience to React on Posts, and (9) Social Media Encourages Promotion of Various Advocacies. Through social media content analysis, the following findings also emerged: (1) Photos with Captions dominates post in Instagram with the use of emoticons, (2) Majority of the Facebook posts are photos and memes which are shared from other users’ posts, and (3) Most Engagements Happen Through Replies and Retweets on Twitter. In the analysis of the contents shared on all the platforms, four themes emerged. These are advocacies, personal struggles, popular culture, and relationships. Another one emerged in Instagram: the emotions and feelings of introversion and isolation. Of all these, popular culture is the most frequent subject of the participants’ posts in all three platforms. Another finding is the participants’ consumption of memes. Memes have become a new format of addressing issues that rarely get talked about, in a funny way. While Instagram offers a more filtered but a more creative expression of oneself and Twitter is for the authentic and uncensored postings, Facebook is a mixture of both, and memes are becoming tools in balancing authentic but less dramatic and more fun disclosures. This study further showed the need for social media as a communication space to be kept safe and conducive for healing and recovery. It is recommended that all stakeholders and all active social media users be mindful of our and other people’s online behavior so we can respond well to those who are suffering and in need of our help.
[T10] Successful Aging from the Filipino Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Older Adults Perspective
Calvin Dave D. Ganub, University of St. La Salle
Lesbians, gays and bisexuals in the Philippines may have conflicting views and experiences as far as aging process is concern. They might have unique challenges and strategies in their journey towards achieving successful aging. There were little researches that have been done to determine the ways in which patterns of successful aging among Filipino LGB older adults undertake. This exploratory sequential design study, investigated and described experiences of successful aging in a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. Employing survey and in-depth interview approach, it utilized semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 LGB older adults, age 50 and older and 60 participants for the survey. The study is anchored on the theories of Activity and Disengagement Theories popularized by Robert Havighurst and Elaine Cumming and Warren Earl Henry. The study took an inductive, phenomenological approach in coding, analyzing and transcribed interviews. Seven gradations of successful aging emerged, these made up their views and experiences over financial security in the future, fear of being alone, physical active exercise which promotes longevity, friendships as source of support and network, spirituality as a source of comfort during rough times in life, family acceptance as a key to better milestones and lastly, their caregiving role to younger and older member of their families. Some of the experiences that participants described were related to LGB status; others were related to more general processes of aging. The study suggests that a successful aging framework that is modified to include their coping strategies can better describe the experiences of LGB older adults on how they were able to thrive and survive old age. The modified conceptual model highlighted here may be useful in future research on this special and vulnerable population, as well as more broadly for diverse populations of older adults, and may be adapted for use in practice to assess, analyze and improve the overall health and well-being to be captured by the lens of a multidisciplinary perspective in understanding aging process among Filipino LGB older adults.
[T11] Assessment of the Socio-economic and Development Challenges: Input in Establishing Community-Based Edible Landscape Garden
Rowena P. de Guzman, University of the Philippines Los Baños
Edible Landscaping (EL) is an innovative way of producing food combining the principles of landscape design and the science of small-crop production. With this, families and communities can access safe and nutritious food with the aesthetically pleasing and functional environment. However, establishing the EL garden entails knowledge and skills in the part of the actors and the existing challenges that may enable and hinder the successful implementation of the EL garden, respectively, hence the need to characterize them before its establishment. This study aims at assessing the socio-economic conditions of members of a faith-based women's group in Casiguran, Sorsogon, Philippines. Eighteen women from a faith-based organization were identified by the parish to be a prime mover of the establishment of the EL garden in the area. Four of them are already widowed and more than half of them attained either education at the primary level or managed to spend some years in high school. A greater proportion of them reported having a family earning Php 10,000 to 30,000.00 on an annual basis. Despite the report of having a low income, they perceived that their socio-economic situation is not that influential in their participation in the establishment of EL garden because for them this is an activity worth spending of time and money. The findings point to the importance of understanding the actors’ characteristics toward innovations that are instrumental for the wider scale of EL technology adoption and long-term sustainability of the garden that will be established in their area.
[T12] A Pilot Study on SPOCs: A Teacher Professional Development Program for Grade School Teachers
Charlotte Christie Librando De Leon, St. Scholastica's Academy Marikina
The Web and technology have introduced varied modes of Teacher Professional Development (TPD) like SPOCs (Small Private Online Courses) and other online learning activities. This paper is a pilot study prior to a department-wide implementation of SPOCs with LAC (Learning Action Cell) as a Teacher Professional Development program to grade school teachers. As a Catholic educational institution, the SPOCs to be offered by St. Scholastica’s Academy Marikina (SSAM) is a response to the second encyclical of Pope Francis, the Laudato si’, which is a call to care for our common home. The courses are Discovering Sustainability for the 1st semester and Creating a Sustainable School for the 2nd semester. This study uses ethnographic method, where data from the individual reflections and focus group discussions of SPOCs learning designers and SPOCs teacher participants, are utilized for narrative analysis. This study hopes to look into the completion rate of participants and the feasibility of organizing and implementing SPOCs in schools by looking into its opportunities and challenges. All of these are deemed helpful in developing SPOCs as a mode for TPD in schools.
[T13] Playful Tourism: Transforming Cultural Tourism for Inclusive and Sustainable Development in Underprivileged Communities
Gian Carlo U. de Jesus, Balaiwari Immersive and Gamified Experiences
This action research problematizes how cultural tourism can be made inclusive and sustainable in underprivileged communities. Cultural tourism comprises 40% of the entire global tourism statistics. Local tourism is greatly in demand, as a growing tourist demographic wants to “live like locals” and prefers authentic, personalized experiences over conventional touristic activities (Richards, 2007). Thus, there’s a clear need to shift cultural tourism to a more “conceptual” and “creative” approach in order to create livelihood opportunities in “non-touristic” communities. The creative approach employs “creativity, talent, and other intangible evidence of culture” as main building blocks of a new cultural tourism (Richards, 2009). Literature suggests that play may facilitate creative expression. Also, play’s set of intrinsic values makes it inclusive and accessible for every person to easily adapt (Schmitt, 1981). Thus, play-based tourism was done as intervention among students in the University of Arts London. Through surveys, interviews, and participant observation, a model called “Playfull Tourism” was conceived. This is defined as a kind of tourism that makes use of pretend play aesthetics in order to co-create innovative cultural experiences, which in turn, enable immersive and transformative tourism. Results of the intervention revealed that “Playfull Tourism” turns tourists from passive consumers to active prosumers. It likewise serves as "soft infrastructure" that complements existing tourism offerings or creates tourism in non-touristic locations in a faster, more efficient, and low cost manner. Lastly, it was found that this kind of tourism is a knowledge-based product, allowing it to be exportable and doable even in places not conventionally seen as touristic. This implies that when a tourism venture is play-based, it is easier for it to become community-based, creative, and of the experiential kind – necessary ingredients for tourists to “live like a local.”